Oral Melanosis: Discoloration mucosa in smoker habits: A review article
Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Aisyah Rachmadani Putri Gofur, Soesilaningtyas, Rizki Nur Rachman Putra Gofur, Mega Kahdina, Hernalia Martadila Putri
Introduction: Melanosis is a discoloration of the mucosa. Color changes in the oral mucosa can occur due to many factors, one of which is the excessive consumption of cigarettes. In 2014, 22% of smokers had melanosis of the oral mucosa. In addition, white people more often experience melanosis in the oral cavity. This habit may broadly be classified as smoked tobacco and smokeless tobacco. May occur in up to one of five smokers, especially females taking birth control pills or hormone replacement than in men. Gingival pigmentation in children has been linked to passive smoking from parents and other adults who smoke. Clinic pathological study reported that the intensity of the pigmentation was more in the labial mucosa than in the buccal mocosa.
Objective: Aim of this study is to review oral melanosis in the oral cavity and its relationship with smoker.
Discussion: The gingiva is a part of the oral cavity that often experiences melanosis. The color of the gingiva is determined by the thickness of the epithelium, the degree of keratinization, the presence and level of melanin deposits, and the underlying connective tissue, including blood flow within the gingiva, in the presence of other pigments such as hemoglobin or oxyhemoglobin. Melanocytes are seen in the basal layer of the epithelium. The basal layer of the epithelium secretes melanin via dendrite projections to the interior of adjacent keratinocytes.
Conclusion: Melanosis of the gingiva often occurs, one of the causes that most often triggers melanosis of the gingiva, namely smoking. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to cigarette consumption in the community.